DRAW100 Drawing I: Form and Space

Linear Perspective

Elements of Art: Line, Space, Form, Shape
Students will utilize line quality, value and linear perspective to depict form and space.

Students will integrate appropriate terminology in the analysis and critique of drawings.

Intro to New Material

Perspective Drawing Overview
Perspective is a system for drawing, used to create the illusion of 3-dimensionality (volume and depth) on a 2-dimensional surface.

To learn the history of linear perspective please view this video about Brunelleschi here.
Atmospheric Perspective
Atmospheric perspective or aerial perspective is the effect of light and moisture in the atmosphere that enables the viewer to see distance and depth by variations of value, saturation, temperature, and edges.

Depth is created by objects becoming lighter in value the further away they are. Edges are softer and out of focus. Objects have less saturation in color. Typically the temperature of color becomes much cooler.

Linear Perspective
Linear perspective is based on the principle of Diminution, meaning that things appear to get smaller as they move away from the viewer. We use Orthogonal or Converging Lines that are drawn along receding parallel lines that converge to Vanishing Points on a Horizon Line to create the illusion of 3-dimensionality.
Vanishing Points Explained
There are simplified systems called 1-point, 2-point, and 3-point that are used to help us understand how linear perspective creates the illusion of 3-dimensionality.

However, it is important to understand that these systems really don't exist. Most compositions we create from life or reference will contain multiple vanishing points along the horizon line. In reality, all 3-dimensional objects we see are in 3-point perspective, meaning they all have a vanishing 1, 2, and 3-point. But like many things in art creation, we must start with a simplified foundation to achieve a greater understanding.
Perspective Tips
In a 1-point drawing you will mainly see the front plane or face of objects.
In a 2-point drawing you will most likely see the edge of an object.
Cone of Vision
The Cone of Vision is an approximate 60 degree angle of undistorted vision that extends as an imaginary cone from our eyes. This is important to understand because the proportion of objects drawn outside of the Cone of Vision become distorted.

1 & 2-Point Practice

Important: This exercise needs to be entirely completed. Practice is important in the beginning stages of learning to draw so we can build muscle memory and confidence in our mark making.
Practice Instructions
Mechanical Skills we are using:
Exercises we are building on:
What you are turning in:
1 - 9x12 in. 1-point boxes perspective drawing.
1 - 9x12 in. 2-point boxes perspective drawing.
Completed Example
why boxes?
A box consists of three sets of parallel lines. An x, y or z axis that establishes the foundation of what we understand to be 3D space.

Any object can be simplified into the box that encompasses it. And any box can be subdivided, carved, and built upon to create any complex object(s).

Project Overview

1-PT PERSPECTIVE INterior space

Elements of Art: Line, Space, Form, Shape
Overview:  We will use multiple photographic references to create a drawing of an interior space using 1-point perspective.
Project Preparation:
You are to take three photographs of an interior space to be used as reference for your drawing.
What you will turn in:
Project Expectations:
Observation (Building a visual library)
Carefully observe the space that is to be drawn in 1-point perspective working on developing our analytical skills.

Continual observation is practiced throughout the drawing process.
Planning (Sketching)
Sketches are the guide that informs the execution process of the drawing.
Execution (Completing the drawing)
Using an informed visual library and continued observation of the scene, draw the interior space in 1-point perspective following all the previous practiced steps.
Evaluate / Edit
Edit and make corrections based on observation and evaluation.
Sketching Assignment
Sketch 3 thumbnails of the interior space from various viewpoints to the single vanishing point. That means moving towards or farther away from the vanishing point.

View my demo video for instructions.
At least 3 sketches of your proposed idea of an interior space in 1-pt perspective.
Next Steps
Layout Assignment
Using a grid helps make the drawing of your room much easier. It will also be a guide for your final drawing that you will complete later on.
  • First: Choose your favorite sketch of the interior space. For example: I created a sketch that had a Christmas tree near the fire place. I liked that one more so I want to use that sketch for my layout and then final drawing.
  • Next: Use the provided grid to redraw your sketch using the grid lines as guides to correct any perspective errors that you may have made in your sketch. The grid makes drawing your room much easier.
  • Last: Clean up your drawing and add the details.
  • Draw orthogonal lines from each corner of the box to the single vanishing point.
What you are turning in:
Completed Layout Drawing
Example Layout Drawing
Last Step
Using your refined sketch as a guide, use a ruler to re-draw your refined sketch into a more detailed drawing.

Remember to practice great craftsmanship!
Neatness is important. This means you took your time and cared about your work. It also shows you value yourself and the time spent in creating visual work from your ideas.
Craftsmanship Means:
  • You are motivated by mastery rather than attaining a status.
  • You are willing and not afraid to learn from your mistakes.
  • You believe in the end-value of what you are creating.
  • You plan and think things through first.
  • You immerse yourself and maintain focus on your work.
  • You put in the hours to refine your craft.
What you are turning in:
Completed 18x24 or larger 1-pt perspective interior space.